Resilience, Inherited? Or Developed and Nurtured?
The study describes three requisite elements for resilience. There must be a significant risk factor or condition of adversity, resources to offset the effects of adversity and an adaptation that is positively skewed with an aim to avoid a similar adversity in future. The analysis, therefore, is anchored on the following definition that attempts to incorporate all the key elements. Thus, resilience is a strategy of negotiating, managing or adapting to trauma and similar sources of stress and strain. The resources in question in this respect are inherent within the individual. These must also be supplemented and complemented by the environment and life experiences in order to enable such capacity to come to their aid when need be. Resilience varies significantly across the course of life (Windle, 2011).
It has been found that long standing exposure to stressful conditions in the course of one’s development produces long-term alterations in HPA axis. This has also been shown to increase vulnerability to ailments and disease. Some of these ailments include posttraumatic stress disorder along with a myriad of anxiety and mood complications. Genetic association research in the recent past show that the negative effects mentioned could be mitigated. One of the possible solutions is the application of genex environment interactive interventions that involve polymorphisms with two important genes, i.e. FKBP5 and CRHRI (Gillespie, Phifer, Bradley, & Ressler, 2009). Available information explains that the genes are responsible for regulation of HPA axis functions in liaison with exposure to child abuse or general maltreatment. More research in preclinical studies show that heightened activity of amygdale/HPA axis stirred my experimental manipulations of the former shows similar characteristics of the behavioural and physiological symptoms of psychiatric illness that is related to stress in human beings. It is worth noting that interactions between growing amygdale and the HPA axis form the basis for crucial periods of emotional learning curves. These processes are regulated by the maternal care and developmental support structures.
The findings inevitably lead to integrated hypothetical stand that if one is subjected to a high level of stress in early life, they are likely to lead to sickness via the developmental interactions of variants of genetic nature. These variants contain neutral circuits that are responsible for the regulation of emotion. These elements work together to mediate resilience and risk factors in adulthood (Gillespie, Phifer, Bradley, & Ressler, 2009).