CHAPTER learning ages (Ali, & Saiden, 2014). It is

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

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This chapter outlines the study background and
states its problem. It also presents the research objective, the significance
of the study, scope and limitation, and definition of key terms.

1.1.
Research Background

Reading skill is one of the
most essential English basic skills. It is a process of constructing meaning
from written texts (Hermida, 2009; S.A. Gani et al., 2016). The readers make
meaning that requires word recognition, comprehension, and fluency.  Reading is also called as an active process
which should be achieved at the early learning ages (Ali, & Saiden, 2014).
It is a compound skill that needs the coordination of relevant sources of
information. Therefore, it is necessary to
learn English through reading for students because it significantly gives
inputs of knowledge.

Some students still have low competence in reading skill and
language components of English. S.A. Gani et al. (2016) find some difficulties
in reading for students. These dif?culties included ?nding the main idea in the
text, interpretation of the text, speci?c information, and understanding the
new English vocabulary or content terms used in the text. The problem is not
about the understanding of the word meaning, but the main difficulty is the
connection between words, sentences, and the concept which will build the
comprehension of the text (Amir Rezaei, et al., 2012).

Another problem could be found when teaching and learning reading
process in classroom. The students do not enjoy in reading activities because
of the monotonous technique which will affect the classroom atmosphere. This
problem is probably caused by the uninteresting technique used by teacher in teaching
reading. The tedious teaching technique may cause the students less motivated
in learning reading process since students usually work in same way and teacher
becomes the primary focus.

The interaction between the students and their friends should be
planned to make students enjoy the learning of reading. Wei and Tang (2012)
state one of the factors that give a better impact for the students’
achievement in learning is their relationship with friends. Therefore, if the
teacher can create atmosphere where student can build cooperation with their
friends, it will give better result for the achievement of the learning. For
example, students do the assignment with their partner or group and discuss
together cooperatively.

Cooperative
learning is a learning method where students work in group in order to gain the
shared goals. It has a huge impact for the students in
learning process due to its benefits (?engül and Katranci, 2014).
In this cooperative learning method, students work together to finish a task
that gives them the opportunity to discuss and share the ideas each other. Changing
role of students makes them feel in control and enjoy the activity since the
teacher becomes a facilitator (Susan Esnawy, 2016). There are some techniques used in cooperative learning method which
one of them is Jigsaw technique.

Jigsaw
is one of techniques in cooperative learning that makes students work actively
in groups through serial activities which also give impact for students’
learning process. Aç?kgöz (2006) stated that jigsaw technique is based on group
dynamics in which there are several sessions of activity for students in group.
It is also based on social interactions caused by the activities that requires
students to work and discuss each other (as cited in Sahin, 2010). This
technique is one of the genuine cooperative learning techniques. It affects
students in fostering learner responsibility, positive interdependence and
teamwork skills (Aronson, 1978; F.H. Adams, 2013).

Jigsaw
technique has procedures which are structured (Aronson, 1978). Teacher gives
students the material and the aspects. Students are divided into home group to
specialize in one aspect in the material given. Then, they are divided into new
groups called expert group to assign the same aspect of theirs. After mastering
the material in expert group, they return to the home group and teach each
aspects to their group members. As the result, all members of home group will
get the lessons from each expert group discussion so that they will have advantage
each other (N.H. Azmin, 2016).

Different
strategies of jigsaw technique had been developed by the experts (Sahin, 2010).
One of them is jigsaw II developed by Slavin (1987). The difference between
Jigsaw II and the original jigsaw is one of the jigsaw stage activities. In
addition, other strategies of jigsaw which developed are: Jigsaw III by Stahl (1994);
Jigsaw IV by Holliday (2000); reverse jigsaw by Hedeen (2003); and subject
jigsaw developed by Doymus (2007).

There are some previous researches discussed the importance of
jigsaw technique in learning process, for instance, in English reading skills. One
of the researches was conducted by Mauludi (2011). The researcher used experimental
research to measure the effectiveness of using jigsaw to improve students’
reading narrative text ability. The eleventh grade students of MAN Kendal were
taken as the population. In analyzing the data, a
quantitative measurement was used to find the result. The analysis of the data
showed that there was a significant difference of the students’ achievement
between experimental class and control class. The result of his finding shown
that it was suggested that Jigsaw technique can be used by the teachers to
improve students’ ability in reading narrative text.

Another researcher, Inayati (2011) used experimental study at SMP
Islam Parung by using pre-test and post-test. The eighth grade students were
selected as the population. The result was that teaching reading using jigsaw
technique was effective to improve students’ reading comprehension.

Based on those previous studies, the jigsaw
technique is believed to help students to fulfill their lack in reading skill
through cooperative learning method. However, those researches solely discussed
the used of original jigsaw technique by Aronson (1978). Therefore, the writer
is interested to conduct a research about the use of jigsaw II technique
particularly in learning reading skill for students.

1.2.
Research Problem

Based
on the description of the background study above, the research question can be
framed as follows: Does jigsaw technique II significantly improve Students’
Reading Skill?

1.3.
 Research
Objective

Discovering
the pertinent answer to the research question is the most important objective
of this research study. So, this research is aimed to know whether the use of
jigsaw II technique significantly improves student’s reading skill or not.

1.4.
Scope and Limitation

In
this study, the writer investigates the implementation of Jigsaw II technique
in improving students’ reading skills. To make it more focus, the study limits
the problem only on the improvement of student’s reading skills which the
material given is functional text in 1th semester ESP Reading
subject at English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

1.5.
 Research
Significance

The
writer expects this research will give good contribution for the lecturer, the
students, and further researchers, and English language teaching. For the lecturer,
the study is expected to give support of evidence that jigsaw II technique is
effective to be applied in class to improve students’ reading skills. The
students are also hoped to be motivated in mastering reading and given a more
positive class atmosphere. Furthermore, this study is intended to provide other
researchers with some reliable instruments, action procedures, and experimental
findings for employing them in future research.

1.6.
Definition of Key Terms

The
following terms are defined operationally to avoid any misunderstanding and
misconceptions within research.

 

 

1.     
Jigsaw II Technique

Jigsaw
II is the cooperative learning technique developed by Slavin (1987). In this
technique, students are divided into small groups doing the tasks given through
the structured stages to achieve the goal in the learning process. Jigsaw II
has a slight difference with Jigsaw I by Aronson (1978) that it has an
additional stage in the process where students in home should read before go to
the expert groups and  get a short test
after expert group (Kam-wing, 2004).

2.     
Reading Skill

Reading skill is one of learning skills that
involves perception and thought. It needs two interactive processes between
word recognition from text and readers’ comprehension. Readers enable to get a
message from the constructed meaning through the written words or symbols
interpretation (Brown, 2000).

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