CHAPTER study is completed to final stage which is

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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3.1  Introduction

Methodology
is defined as more than just a methods being used to collect data. It is a way
to find out the result of a given problem or research.  Apart from that, it is also a way of
searching or solving the research problem. Research methodology is important as
the guidance in completing the research 
study.  In  this 
study,  six  steps 
of  research  methodology 
being  used,  which 
are  problem statement  and 
objective  identification,  literature 
review,  collecting  data, 
data  analysis  and discussion, conclusions and
presentation.  A systematic procedure is
very significant in collecting, analyzing and documenting data to get a good
result.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.2 Methodology Flowchart

Problem Statement
and Objectives

Literature Review

Collecting
Data

Questionnaires

Interview

Data Analysis and
Results Discussion

Conclusion and
Recommendations

Presentation
and Feedback from Panels

Figure
3.1: Flow Chart of Methodology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.1 Problem Statement
and Objectives

A
problem statement is an understandable explanation of the issue that needs to
be addressed by researchers. It is used to maintain focus of the researcher
from the beginning of the process, to keep the 
researcher stay on track until the study is completed to final stage
which is presentation. It also can be used to check whether the research
outcome did solve the problem statement.

Next,
objectives of the study are 
identified  from the problem
statement. Objectives are the matters 
that  need  to 
be  achieved  by 
the  study.  The 
objectives  include  obtaining 
answers  to  the research question or hypothesis.

3.2.2  Literature Review

From
the flowchart, literature review is  the
process of gathering the information from other source  and documenting it.  Literature review is an  evaluation of previous research and it can be
the entire paper in itself.   In the
other word, it is a synopsis of the whole research study that going to be
carried out. Journals,  website  and 
books  are  the 
several  types  of 
sources  being  used 
to  complete  the literature review on Identification of
Critical Success Factors of industry 4.0 Among Construction company.

3.2.3  Collecting Data

The
process of collecting data involving two method which are questionnaire and
literature study.  50  contractors 
with  grade  G7 
around  Shah  Alam, 
Selangor  area  will 
be  distributed  with questionnaire through email  or by hand. The questionnaire  will focused on industry 4.0 activities and
how much the level of a company did practiced industry 4.0 during their
completion of construction project. The  questionnaire 
survey  will  be 
conducted  and  it 
was  produced  related 
to  the  objectives 
of  the study. The questionnaire
will be contributed to population of 50 grade G7 contractors in  Shah Alam, Selangor. The purpose of this
method is to collect the feedback from the respondents, and the data collected
will be analyzed and documented.

3.2.3.1  Data Collection Method

Data
collection is to collect any information which related to the study in order to
produce the result of the study. The data collection method is choose based on
several factors such as the  basis and
range of study, level of precision required and time factor.  In this study, the data collection method
being used is primary research and secondary research.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.2.3.2 Primary Data

Generally,  primary 
data  is  the 
data  collected  from 
the  actual  sources 
in  order  to 
complete  the research. Primary
data involving collection data through observation and questionnaire
surveys.  In short,  the 
data  will  be 
obtained  by  using 
questionnaire  survey.  The 
questionnaire  survey  will 
be distributed  to  the 
targeted  respondents  which 
includes  the  construction 
community.  The questionnaire  will 
be  distributed  through 
mail,  fax,  telephone 
or  by  personal 
approach.  The  data collected are original in character for
the result obtain is fresh from the respondents before being evaluated. Next,
the data will be analyzed and documented to make sure it is easy being
evaluated.

The
questionnaire is having three sections which are Section A, Section B, Section
C and Section D. The background and personal information of the company will be
included in Section A. There are several variables will be ask in Section A,
for example:

i.  The grade of the contractor.

ii.  Designation of the respondent.

iii.  Years of experience of the respondent in
construction industry.

iv.  Number of project being involved by the
organization.

Section  B 
will  be  focused 
on  the  level 
of  awareness  and 
understanding  on  Industry 4.0. The design of questionnaire
survey must be relevant to the objectives of the study.  In this section, the respondent need to mark
on the scale between one (1) and five(5) in order to  simplify 
the  respondent.  According 
to  Ordinal  Scale 
of  Agreement,  num ber 
one  (1)  represent strongly  disagree, 
number  two  (2) 
represent  disagree,  number 
three  (3)  represent 
neutral,  number four (4)
represent agree and number five (5) represent strongly agree. The example of
the ordinal scale is shown Figure
3.2.3.2 below.

Figure 3.2.3.2
Likert’s Scale

Ordinal in ascending order

                                     1          2          3          4          5

 

Section  C 
will  be  focusing 
on  the  factors 
affecting  the  implementation  of 
Industry 4.0  while  section 
D related to the challenges of the implementation of Industry 4.0 among
construction company.  Both section will
be using the same scale as Section B, but in Section D, the respondents will be
given opportunity to deliver their suggestion and comments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.2.3.3 Sample size of
population

The
area selected for the study area is Shah Alam, Selangor while the targeted
respondent is grade G7 contractors which had registered with CIDB. The total
number of G7 contractors in Shah Alam is 807 (CIDB, 2016). Thus, by using
Robert et al., (1970) formula, the sample size of population is calculated. The
formula is as follows:

S = X2NP(1-P) ÷ D2(N-1) +
X2P(1-P)

S
= Required sample size

X2
= Table value of chi-square for 1 degree of freedom at the desired
confidence       level(3.841)

N
= Population size

P
= Population proportion (assume to be 0.50 since this would provide the maximum
sample size)

D2
= Degree of accuracy expressed as proportion (0.05)

The
total number of grade G7 contractors in Shah Alam is  777. 
Thus, the sample size of population is calculated using Robert et al,
(1970) formula.

Sample
size = 3.841 × 777 × 0.5 × (1-0.5) ÷ 0.05 × (777-1) + 3.841 × 0.5 ×
(1-0.5)

                     = 40

 

 

 

 

3.2.3.4 Secondary Data

Secondary  data 
defines  as  data  collected 
from  published  materials 
such  as  journals, 
books  being used by previous
researcher, thesis, articles, or websites. Secondary data is efficient because
it can be compared to the original findings from the study area, Shah Alam,
Selangor. There are several advantages of using secondary data which are:

i.  It offers a lot of general background of the
study.

ii.  It save time and cost.

iii.  Information from previous researchers can be
compared and analyzed.

iv.  It gives information on the literature review
as well.

3.2.4  Data Analysis and Result Discussion

Data  analysis 
is  the  stage 
after  all  the 
information  had  being 
collected.  The  data 
will  be analyzed  and documented  in the proper way for easy evaluated by the
panels.  Next,  the expected result will be identified based
on the data analysis and the result is discussed on why and how the result  is 
obtained.  It  is 
better  to  have 
a  conclusion  in 
the  end  of 
the  report  with 
some recommendation related to the topic for any improvement needed in
the future

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