Human et al, 2012). The stages of life can

Human
life cycle is so complex that it has to pass through different life stages with
passage of time of life. There are numerous issues which affect the development
of the personality of an individual. The issues are divided mainly into two
types such as internal and external. And both the internal and external issues
play vital roles in case of understanding of the behavior, decision and action
etc of an individual (Borenstein et al, 2012). The stages of life can be as
Early Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, and Old age. Among the ages, the mid-life
age can also be divided into three phases such as Early Adulthood, Middle
Adulthood, and Late Adulthood. A number of varied experiences are occurred in
the development of personality in the lid life on an individual in where the
behavior and actions of individual are dealt with the external factors of an individual
such as family background, early schooling, social status and relationship with
parents spouse etc. The changes in mid-life on an individual personality can
also be divided into three major types such as Physical change, Cognitive
change and Psychological change. And the changes are discussed in the essay
about the mid-life changes of an individual.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Understanding the physical,
cognitive and psychological changes in mid life

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Physical
change of the mid-life deals with the change of appearance, looks, and the mental
and physical health of an individual and this type of change make the body
structure of the human beings. Cognitive change also deals with the change in
perception and the changes in reasoning of individual by which an individual
can improve his/her knowledge. On the other hand psychological change deals
with the change in emotions and socializing of an individual and the change the
mental development of the human beings (Richards, 2004). In this case, we can discuss the social
development which consists of two important domains of social intelligence and
social skills so that the physical, cognitive and psychological changes in mid
life can be emphasized on with a view to understanding the domains of Social
intelligence and Social Competence.

Social Intelligence

Social
Intelligence is introduced by Gardener as the capability and ability to define
and distinguish an individual person through evaluating the mood, temperament,
inspiration and intentions of an individual so that the person can be easily
distinguished from the others. According to the introduction of Gardener, the
mood, temperament, motives and inspiration of an individual helps to shape the
behavior of an individual and how he/she interacts with others in the society
(Richards, 2004).  The age of maturity at
the time of the physical, cognitive and psychological changes in mid-life
becomes socially intelligent with a view to understanding an individual with in
the given circumstances.

Social Competence

The second one is Social Competence
which is defined by Bierman as the ability and capacity to communicate adaptive
reactions according to the interpersonal demands and to adjust with the social
behavior. The capacity also helps to be benefited by oneself and in accordance
with social norms and morals (Richards, 2004). In this case, Academic, Social,
and Emotional Learning also help to identify five major competencies with a
view to providing basis for social development. The five major competences are
given below:

 

Self-Awareness: Self- Awareness deals with the
capacity of an individual in case of understanding one self. Self- awareness is
considered as an honest assessment way of defining own personality

Social awareness: Social awareness also deals with
the capacity on an individual in case of understanding others believes,
understandings and reactions in a particular situation and thinking,
understanding and interacting effectively of an individual (Rao et al, 2014).

Self –management: Self-management also deals with the
ability on an individual in case of handling of emotions and reactions in a
situation so that the ability can facilitate oneself and other with a view to
accomplishing goals and objectives in a critical condition (Geoffroy et al,
2011).

Relationship skills: Relationship skills also deal with
the capacity of an individual in case of maintaining sound and healthy relations
with others. The capacity also helps to maintain the effective communication,
co-operation, and coordination in critical situation.

Decision making: Decision making also deals with the
appropriate consideration of all relevant attributes of individual as well as
expected consequences of decision taken by the individual through valuing others
and standing by decision taken by other.

Life course in mid life

The
mid-life is conducted with both objectivity and subjectivity and how the
individual crafts his/her life according to the view of developmental
scientists. The changes are occurred at every stage of individual having
different kinds of challenges but the changes during mid-life are completed
with multiple challenges (Rao et al, 2014). The individual has to take various
effective actions with a view to facing those challenges in context of whole
life stage. Personalities with different backgrounds also play vital roles
having a distinctive approach in case of handling the same situation.

Classical Approach
to Change at Mid life

According
to the classical approach, the personality of individual can be made in the mid-life
stage through growing consensus and for this reason, the changes are occurred
in the mid-life being stable in the mid-life. Maslow and Rogers also define
this stage as an age of integrating positive changes in an individual. Mid-life
is also defined by Carl as a stage in where the emotions are suppressed by both
the men and women (Geoffroy et al, 2011). A seventh psychosocial stage is
defined by Erickson through explaining in reference with two kinds of terms
such as Generativity and Stagnation. On the other hand, the middle Adulthood as
age of conflict has been defined by Levinson. There are also different kinds of
thoughts regarding the changes in mid-life of an individual because it is very
useful in case of considering about the people tenting to gauge the events of
their life having various social experiences.

Midlife Issues

Midlife and Identity
Crisis

According
to the Erikson, the midlife is full of crises in reference with two kinds of terms
such as Generativity and Stagnation in where the Generativist deals with the
feeling of achievement and expressed in form of parenting and mentoring and on
the other hand the Stagnation deals with the feeling of suppression and contributing
little in the improvement of next generation in the society. Erickson has also
defined the mid-life that a continuous conflict between Generativity and
Stagnation is occurred in the mind of an individual. People try their best to
resolve this conflict tend so that they can lead a better life because the
conflict can left the people with sense of rejection.

 

Figure:
Erikson’s stages of psychological development;    Source: (SCHWEBEL, 1999)

On
the other hand, Levinson has also defined the mid-life as age of inner conflict
and age of “personal crises”. In this case, the researchers are conducted with
men having dissatisfied with their personal as well as professional life. A
person can be made radical changes in case of change old career or divorce
according to Levinson (Skoog, 2012). Levinson has also dealt with the people
who could be able to resolve their inner conflicts with a view to achieving
their balanced and contended life.

There
are also different kinds of identity crises in case of physical, cognitive and psychological
changes in mid-life. Different theorist have also been defined and discussed
with different perspectives. In this case, the Generativity helps an individual
for the personality development affected with social roles and expectations.
There have also conducted with various researches considering “prime time” for
women. In this case, the narrative psychology of mid-life deals with the
ongoing process in case of crafting the story of life.

Mental Well-being

The
mental health id the prime concern in mid-life in midlife of an individual because
some tremendous changes have been occurred at this stage of life in where an
individual has to assess and analyze his/her life so that the individual can be
sensitive and concerned about the success and failures of life. In this case the
sense plays vital roles because the failure in achieving the sense leads to
depression which a mental health disorder is creating the feelings of sadness with
daily functioning (Rao et al, 2014). Depression is also responsible for
creating other issues such as depressive disorder, psychotic depression and
postpartum depression etc. The depressive disorder ratio between females and
males is at a ratio of 2:1 at the time of a woman’s childbearing years.

Figure: Mental well-being;        Source: (Dregan and Gulliford, 2013)

There has now reason for depression
in mid-life and in this case, the reason can be genetics such as sex hormones,
life stress and trauma, sexual abuse and domestic violence etc and these
factors are also associated with the depression for women in their mid-life
because of the traumatic and uncontrollable life events.

Relationship Change in mid
life

There
have various relationships maintained by an individual because the
relationships have important influences on the development of a personality.
There are also different roles played by the individual in case of making
different relationship with a view to contributing to improve the quality of relationship
(Son, 2011). For this reason, the social and emotional interaction of an individual
with other in the society also plays vital roles in mid-life and other stages
of life. The physical and mental well-being of a person is also affected by
various changes in the mid-life of an individual.

Marital Relationship

A
positive relationship is maintained between spouses and mid-life but the
anxiety of an individual deals with the imbalances in the physical, emotional
and social symptoms because the pressure created on the spouse should also be
maintained to build the relationship. The relationships can also be improved in
a positive manner the involvement of both of the spouses so that the power
imbalance can result in submission directly with anxiety and stress among the spouses.
 In this case, the adaptive spouse can directly
influenced by the power imbalance which occurs the higher chances of affecting
physically and psychologically.

Figure:
Marital relationship;       Source: (Geoffroy
et al, 2011)

A
relationship can be developed between education and cheered partner in where
the adaptive partners can be influenced under the Bachelor’s and Master’s level
of education because the higher level education can creates the higher chances
of emotional and psychological symptoms. In this case, the critical pressures
are faced by the adaptive spouse in case of maintaining the relationship. The
younger adaptive spouse faces the lesser expectations comparing the others.

Relationship with
Children

There
has a relationship with children achieving the maturing age affected in midlife
stage. In this case the parents should be concerned on raising their children
at the time of leaving their childhood home and starting their own lives. By
this way, the parents can be more responsible for the future of their children
and the ways by which their children can be affected in the society (Richards, 2004).
The children also pass the age of adolescence in the mid life having the dreams
of wanting to pursue. In this case, the control over children’s life can be
lost by the parents. There have some difficulties to take the phenomena for
some parents but they should be to take the decision of the children to improve
the quality and experiences of life.

Figure:
Relationship with children;       
Source: (Hazell, 2014)

The
parents should believe in the term “emptying of nest” for making positive influence
for mothers and sometimes it is too difficult for some couples depending on
their children on finding it extremely to go out their children (SCHWEBEL,
1999). But the middle aged parents are happy with the maturing tendency of
their children so that they can choose their careers with a view to leading a
life. The children can be optimistic about their children’s future at this time
through making a sense of relief.

Moreover
the midlife parents face difficult conflicts with maturing children in the
society because they are more concerned about their children. The maturing
children are suitable for developing self-awareness and self –conscious but the
parents faces difficulties in case of to conducting with them (Hazell, 2014.
The parents want to be the children on their own choice of life but the demand
of children cannot be considered in this case. So, according to the midlife
stages, the way of dealing with children should be easy so that they can enjoy
the liberty to make their choices.

 

 

Conclusion and
Recommendations

There
are different stages passed by human beings having experiences with variety of
events. The events can be related to the physical, cognitive and emotional
well-being of an individual in the society. In this case, the mid-life is the
most important phase of life in where the individual forms own personality
through there will be different kinds of changes including positivity and
stability (Dregan and Gulliford, 2013). Physical, cognitive and psychological
changes in mid-life have been also defined and analyzed through presenting
various schools of thoughts and approaches in mid-life.

There
are also different kinds of issues occurred in every individual’s life in case
of conducting the actions of every individual. The relationship can be different
in midlife depending on the social role of a person such as marital relationship
and relation with children. The adaptive partners can be influenced under the
higher level of education because the higher level education can creates the
higher chances of emotional and psychological symptoms. In this case, the critical
pressures are faced by the adaptive spouse in case of maintaining the
relationship

The
behavior of an individual in mid-life is also analyzed on discussing of the
previous events and background because the mid-life is the prime time of an
individual life. The destruction and depression can be occurred because of the
negative thoughts about the changes of life. So it is required to assess the mid-life
in different perspective (Dregan and Gulliford, 2013). Moreover the parents
should analyze the developmental phase of the children and their decisions with
a view to making better choices for the future.

 

 

 

 

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McQuitty, L. (1963). Best
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