Introduction takes it up and rely on the title

Introduction

      Recently, sexual assault on women in the
U.S have been extremely disregarded by victims,

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family members,
and the general U.S people. The United States Department of Justice Define

sexual assault as
contact or behavior that happens without the explicit consent of the other
person

sexually.
Activities that are forced like sexual intercourse, forcible sodomy, oral sex,

molestation,
incest, fondling, and attempted rape also falls under sexual assault. (3

Neufville,2017).
The number of sexual of sexual assault seem to be steadily increasing. The

Bureau of Justice
statistics, the national Center for Education statistics, and the American

Institute for
research recorded that during 2012 campus sexual assaults recorded were 4000
but in 2015 these numbers then jumped to 5,000. (1 Nunez, 2016). Woman is
continually the target for these types of assaults. Statistics about sexual
violence report that one out of five women are sexually assaulted while in
college men on the other hand has a much lower risk with a 1 out of 16 chance
to being targeted. (2 NSVR, 2015). Officials of the education campuses always want
theirs campus to be safe for their attendees yet, there are no direct reason to
why this happen but the National Institute of Justice mention things like
joining a sorority group, close parties with minimal supervisions, and the
amount of involuntary time we spend with unknown attacker may have a major contribution
to why. (4NIJ 2015). The women who are victims of this type of abuse can often
experience nightmares and flashbacks fear and an anxiety disorder called PTSD.
(5opt. RVA 2017). Authorities in the legal branches takes it up and rely on the
title IX to persecute. To reduce the amount of women being the target of these
attacks, legal authorities enforces laws, persecute, and give rights to those
who have been a victim.

 

Enforcement
of Laws

      In
order to prevent sexual assault on women on school campuses various laws are in
forced to be followed. Indiana university, part of the top 15 schools for
undergraduate teaching in the U.S, includes The Clery Act that requires all
college and universities to provide a detailed report of crimes that happened
near or on campus including sexual assault. (Indiana University, 2017). In  The Handout for Campus Safety and Security
Reporting, the guide given for reporting the Clery Act, gives example of scenarios
of sexual assault that is necessary to report under this act (       2017). Thus, this act brings attention
to the action taking places to these women on college campuses. In addition to
the Clery Act, the university of Indiana included the Violence Against Women
Act (VAWA).  VAWA was first intact during
1994 and have since continue to extend until today. Included provisions on rape and battering that focused on
prevention, funding for victim services and evidentiary matters, subsequent
reauthorizations have vastly improved services for victims of sexual and
domestic violence and stalking, as well as education and training about
violence against women for victim advocates, health professionals, law
enforcement, prosecutors and judges. The Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act
(Campus SaVE) was also noted by the Indiana University. The house of congress
included this act under the title IX requirements and rulings of higher education (IHE)
participating in a title IV program to include in its annual security report on
campus security policy and crime statistics a statement of current policies for
reporting crimes or other emergencies in or on noncampus buildings or property
(currently, only reporting of crimes on campus is required). Requires such
report to include statistics concerning the occurrence of domestic violence,
dating violence, and stalking incidents reported to campus security authorities
or local police.

Prosecutions

      Surprisingly, once someone violate one of
the laws set against rape I the U.S on school 
campuses, the criminal is often not prosecuted. The University of
Kentucky reported that when sexual assaults are reported to law
enforcement, very few cases end up being prosecuted, with research indicating
that only 14-18% of all reported sexual assaults ultimately get prosecuted
(Univerity of Kentucky 2012). The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has
initiated two projects to identify, develop and test the best methods for
collecting self-report data on rape and sexual assault. In June 2011, BJS
charged an expert panel from the National Research Council’s Committee on
National Statistics (CNSTAT) to examine conceptual and methodological issues surrounding
survey statistics on rape and sexual assault and to recommend to BJS the best
methods for obtaining such statistics on an ongoing basis (Bureau of  Justice statistics 2015).
In cases for sexul assault, Spohn and Holleran,
legal authorities, include the importance of examining the victim’s
character, behavior, and credibility may play an especially important role in
charging decisions (2014). Researchers
examined the effect of victim characteristics, offender characteristics, and
case characteristics on charging decisions in cases involving strangers,
acquaintances, and intimates. Victim characteristics were subdivided into
background factors. For example, The risk-taking variable was coded 1 if the
police file indicated that at the time of the assault the victim was walking
alone late at night, was hitchhiking, was in a bar alone or was using alcohol
or drugs, or if she willingly accompanied the suspect to his residence or
invited him to her residence.

Legal
Rights For Victims

      Of course
it’s after the assault the women report the rape. They should know that there
are many rights to their benefits that can help them come and prevent it from
happening again.
States are just beginning to adopt victims’ rights
laws that will apply specifically to these cases. In the meantime, many
existing victims’ rights laws may be interpreted to apply in this
context. These does not always apply to all cases, it varies. Jurisdictions are moving to process previously untested sexual assault kits (SAKS), some of
which had remained untested for decades. When such testing results in further investigation or
the reopening of cases, victims may need counseling or other services to cope with the impact of
the retesting (13Myriad Media 2013). The
assembly bill noted Existing law grants the victim of sexual assault, as specified,
the right to have a victim advocate and a support person of the victim’s
choosing at any interview by law enforcement authorities, district attorneys,
or defense attorneys. Existing law requires the law enforcement authority or
district attorney, before commencing the initial interview, to notify a victim
that he or she has this right. This bill would require a law enforcement
authority or district attorney to also notify the victim that he or she has the
right to request to have a person of the same gender or opposite gender as the
victim present in the room during any interview with a law enforcement official
or district attorney, unless no such person is reasonably available.

 Conclusion

      Women
being the target for sexual assault on school campuses in the U.S cannot be
reasoned with. It leads to an unhealthy state of mind to the victims. There’s
minimal things we can do to revents this. Legal authorities enforces laws and
acts that reduces these chances and creates a safer environment for these
women. There are also penalties for those who violates these regulations on
campuses and off campus. Usually it’s after the assault the victims speak up,
they mostly stress the punishment of the criminal yet they fail to recognize
they have compensation for speaking up and ways to find new comfort if they
decide to continue attending the school. They have the right to find mental
relief support for the trauma they might of experienced. Now all that’s left is
in hands of the people who know the issue to spread and prevent. 

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