Theories Tactics Methods and Techniques Term Paper

EDSE 600: History and Philosophy of Education / / 3.0 credits

The class entitled, History and Philosophy of Education, focused on the origin of education and the “philosophical influences of modern educational theory and practice. Study of: philosophical developments in the Renaissance, Reformation, and revolutionary periods; social, cultural and ideological forces which have shaped educational policies in the United States; current debates on meeting the wide range of educational and social-emotional needs of students from diverse cultures.” (need to add reference here)

This course precisely presented numerous, pertinent ideas for this researcher to use while writing this thesis. Due to this study, this researcher is now capable of discussing great thinkers during the time frames of the Renaissance and Reformation, as well as, ways current events of this time influenced leading thinker to accomplish what they did. Along with this understanding, this research can competently incorporate how some of the actions of the educational thinkers of these times, in time impacted today’s music classroom.

1.3: Thesis Structure

Researcher’s Considerations Regarding this Study

The focus of this study, by its design, constitutes a natural extension of this researcher’s previously noted, prior studies. This study embraces the basic spectrum of great thinkers in music history and their link to learning in contemporary high school music.

Significance of this Study

This researcher purports this thesis proves valuable as it presents relevant thoughts, related to music and education, linking past historical to contemporary times. In time to come, this researcher predicts, this thesis could also prove to be a valuable contribution for future students to consider. No specific location has been designated for this thesis, although specific eras in time are denoted.

Chapter Components

The chapters following this study’s introduction will include the following categories:

Terms, Theories and Tactics

Literature Review

Approach, Discussion and Conclusion

During the second chapter of this thesis, entitled Terms, Theories and Methods, this researcher explains important terms, theories and methods related to this study’s focus.

The third chapter in this study, the literature review, examines previously published work, considered important and relevant to this thesis, including primary and secondary works. In turn, the researched information is analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis for this thesis will stand the test of research.

Chapter four, titled Approach, Discussion and Conclusion, relates considerations from the findings retrieved from the approach effort invested in this study, discuss determinations this researcher reached and presents concluding thoughts.

1.4 Aim and Objectives TC “Aims and Objectives” f C l “2”


To utilize the literature research method to explore and examine components relating to some of the prominent, positive ideas contributed by leaders of the Renaissance and Baroque Eras, and consequent affects linking to the contemporary high school music class.

Objective One:

To thoroughly research and investigate some of the great leaders/composers in music history; during Renaissance, and Baroque eras.

To complete research for this thesis, this researcher proposed to access and examine approximately 25 sources to secure information relevant to contributions from great thinkers in music history, and in turn, link these to the contemporary high school music class. Before completing all of the research for this study, this researcher determined to create a mind map, using a template, to help keep the study’s focus in line with proposed purpose of the study. Plans for this researched thesis also included scheduling particular times and adhering to specific time frames, not only in regard to the study’s focus, but also in lining up the schedule to complete the work needed for this study.

Objective Two:

Identify and analyze some of the great thinkers’ contributions and expand on the reason(s) for their ongoing relevance.

For objective two, this researcher planned to allocate specific times to examine researched information with the intent to retrieve relevant revelations. This particular component of the project promised to be intriguing, while simultaneously challenging this researcher to confirm the validity of this thesis’ hypothesis.

Objective Three:

Present relevant conclusions regarding past great composers’ leadership strategies in music history and how they may empower the high school music student body.

During the upcoming chapter, this researcher plans to carefully and conscientiously contribute components of Terms, Theories and Tactics, to in tune with West’s introductory claim, confirm a semblance of the value great music asserts.



Music conveys moods and images.

Even in opera, where plots deal with the structure of destiny, it’s music, not words, that provides power.

-Marcel Marceau (Simpson)

2.1: Introduction

During this chapter, this researcher explores terms, theories and tactics attributed to music in history, and/or in contemporary times. This researcher purports, albeit, that terms, theories and tactics convey moods and images, similar to Marceau’s contention regarding music in the introductory quote, also provide power to help high school music groups increase their understanding of past music components, as well as current ones.

2.2: Terms

Classical Music: “The term classical music originates from the Latin term classicus, meaning taxpayer of the highest class. Slowly after making its way through the French, German, and English languages, one of the earliest definitions of the word meant “classical, formall, orderlie, in due or fit ranke; also, approved, authenticall, chiefe, principall. Today, one of the ways Merriam-Webster defines classical is ‘of, relating to, or being music in the educated European tradition that includes such forms as art song, chamber music, opera, and symphony as distinguished from folk or popular music or jazz.'” (Green)

Gregorian Chant: “. . . A simple addition in the history of polyphonic music but not the only one, and numerous works survive that are based on very different melodies. Settings of tropes to, sequences and conduct is are known from the eleventh century onwards, and though they are certainly chance, they are not in any sense to Gregorian.” (Knighton and Fallows)

Multiculturalism denotes “the state or condition of being multicultural . . . The preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society, as a state or nation.” (Multiculturalism)

Musique Dansant: “the correlation between music and dance movements in ballet; Sergei Prokofiev; music and dance of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; …”(MELOS)


Music historiographers reportedly classify six distinct periods of music by their stylistic characteristics. The following depict these categories:

Before 1400 — Medieval — characterized by Gregorian chant, mostly religious

1400-1600 — Renaissance — increase of secular music, madrigals, and art song

1600-1750 — Baroque — known for its intricate ornamentation

1750-1820 — Classical — balance and structure

1820-1900 — Romantic — emotional, large, programmatic

Beyond 1900 — 20th Century — limitless. (Green)

In regard to music, White purports the “Subjective or Relative Aesthetics View” which contends, “There can be no final, or definitive judgment….One person’s subjective opinion is just as valid as another – and that it’s only a matter of personal preference. Some individuals believe a person enjoys music from their perspective as an individual mind is programmed or geared to perceive a particular composition as good. He presents the following table (1), created to help teach children, reflecting this theory:

Fruity Chord Fun

Here’s a completely unscientific but fun way of describing the quality of all those chords =) Note that ‘chord change’ can refer to a static chord, but generally refers to 2 or 3 chords ( / changes). Sometimes though, if the chord ‘grows’ or ‘develops’ over a technical 5 or even 10 ‘chords’, with generally the same notes (but not quite) – this can be said to be part of the ‘same’ chord/c.change (if that makes sense =)

Something like:

Orange is a ‘nice’ normal chord/change. ‘ “Deep” orange’ is the same kind of ‘ordinary’ chord change – but well implemented.

‘Shallow’ orange is the same chord/change but not done so well.

You can probably guess what I’m going to say…

‘Deep’ and ‘Pale’ apply to the other ‘fruit’ chords:

‘Strawberry’ – this is more unusual than orange and more fun to listen to.

‘Lemon’ – a ‘sour’ chord/change – great for ‘tense’ climatic moments in tunes.

‘Apple’ – for the chord changes which don’t need to sound good in themselves, but are necessary to blend well with the rest. Tunes generally have lots of these.

‘Lime’ – a cross between the ‘tense’ mysterious-ness of Lemon, and the cool Strawberry chord.

‘Blackberry’ – a bitter / sweet chord change … ummm… similar to lemon but… erm nevermind: )

(by the way, these terms are not at all arbitrary; -D

The best tunes utilise all these ‘types’ of chord changes (and perhaps use them in a hierarchical structure (i.e. mostly apple (fill in), a lot of orange, some strawberry / lime and a couple of lemon / blackcurrant twists put in for good measure; )

(All of these would be the ‘Deep’ (as opposed to Shallow) versions for the best tunes by the way).

So for example, “Shallow Lemon” is…

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